“Releasing the Fire of Prometheus”
HHO, HOH, Hydroxy, Oxyhydrogen or Brown’s Gas — any one of these terms are loosely used to define a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gasses. However, for the purpose of standardization, the combinations of these gasses may be more formally identified. In this presentation, Hydroxy, is defined as any gasses based on a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen irrespective of their chemical or nuclear state. HHO (Oxyhydrogen) may be defined as the stoichiometric gaseous mix of water (H2O) and comprises basically H2 (diatomic hydrogen) and O2 (diatomic oxygen). HOH (or Hydroxide) is different, it is predominantly made up of the ions H+ (Hydrogen radical or a proton) and OH- (Hydroxyl). The term Brown’s gas is superfluous in our system of definitions.
If just a single spark is applied to any of the aforementioned gaseous compounds, they will instantaneously ignite into a ball of fire and recombine into water. No carbon is necessary. HOH is a conductive gas that when ignited forms a plasmoid of intense heat. In ball lightening the hydroxyl gas may also react with the atmospheric nitrogen ions NO2 or NO3 creating an even more intense plasma ball. In Greek mythology it was Prometheus, the Titan creator and protector of humanity, who stole the secret of fire from Zeus and gave it to us as -“The Fire of Prometheus” .
As most of the information on the net regarding this subject is either fragmented or ill informed, I have prepared the following videos and accompanying manual as a comprehensive guide for those wishing to pursue this line of research. This video is essential viewing for those interested in learning the fundamentals and pitfalls of hydrolysis and the application of hydrogen gasses as a commercially viable fuel.
Releasing the fire of Prometheus – Part 1
Releasing the fire of Prometheus – Part 2
Technically, we may define the process of breaking down water into its constituent parts in an electrolytic cell as Hydrolysis. In general, the impurities in the water bath act as a conductive catalysis (electrolyte) to assist in the decomposition of water. Chemically, the water molecule reacts with this catalyst breaking down the water into the ions H+ (The hydrogen radical) and OH- (Hydroxyl), which then accumulate at the respective electrodes in direct proportion to the flow of electrons. The H+ ions form at the negative cathode , whilst the OH– ions form at the positive anode. The OH– ions then give up their excess electrons through the external circuit to neutralize the H+ ions, thus forming the diatomic gasses of H2 and O2 which then migrate to the water surface. If these gasses are allowed to combine together above the electrodes then this combination of the hydrogen and oxygen gas atoms may form into a variety of hydroxy gasses which may also contain hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals.
Depending on the design of the hydrolyser, the concentration and type of electrolyte, the electrode material and configuration of electrodes, electrical potential across the cell and/or the mark space ratio of electrical pulses in one or a number of frequencies, or whether additional gasses are added to the mix or whether the cell is pressurized– all will contribute to the hydroxy gas mix resulting in different exothermic energy densities. The higher the energy density, the greater will be the explosive and/or implosive force when subjected to a source of ignition. Basic DC hydrolysis as formulated by Michael Faraday is therefore only the starting point in exploiting the huge power potential waiting to be applied as a viable alternative to carbon based fuels.
The base hydrogen atom is called a protium atom consisting of 1 proton and 1 electron and may combine with neutrons to form additional isotopes. Under normal conditions, about 0.02 percent or 1 in 5000 atoms of hydrogen gas is identified as a stable deuterium isotope which contains 1 proton and 1 neutron plus 1 electron. Hydrogen gas also contains tritium isotopes in much smaller quantities with each atom containing an additional neutron. When these higher order isotopes are combined within the hydroxy mix in greater concentrations an entirely new phenomenon of transmutation may be experienced in the combustion process.
In recent decades attempts have been made to power internal combustion engines in-situ by the direct decomposition of water into hydroxy. To the trained scientist such attempts appear to contravene the law of thermodynamics and are foolhardy, but despite this, many researchers across the globe have given their time and hard earned cash in the pursuit of this endeavor. Ironically, there have been a number of success stories, although not developed commercially.
It is hoped that eventually, researchers in this area will come up with a commercially viable synthetic fuel that is carbon free, renewable, environmentally safe and with an energy density to rival or surpass that of petrol,. As pointed out previously, this is not as difficult as it may seem, hydrogen can take on many forms and can easily be produced from renewable energy or as a product of other processes. The recombination of atomic hydrogen into diatomic hydrogen can reach temperatures of over 4000oC, Deuterium and Tritium as isotopes of hydrogen can be separated from heavy water for use as a fuel. It has been proven by experiment that when detonated in a combustion chamber, these isotopes can even undergo transmutation into Helium, thus releasing huge amounts of energy. Although HHO, when detonated in a combustion chamber with air, , is incapable of delivering full power to an IC engine, further development of more sophisticated synthetic fuels are possible, thus rendering the carbon fuels age obsolete.
In 1700, Nicolas Lemery was the first to record the explosive properties of water gas. Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) called these gases, “inflammable air, that when burned, produces nothing but water”. In 1783 Antonine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), showed that water consisted of two gases, one being oxygen, and the other he named hydrogen “water producer” .
In 1789 Nicholson and Carlisle were the first to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water by hydrolysis. Sir Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday soon followed in their footsteps. Together, these two scientists laid down the basic laws of electrolysis and separated most of the commonly known elements.
In 1804, Francois de Rivaz (1752-1828) was the first to patent an internal combustion engine, using hydrogen and air at atmospheric pressure as the primary fuel. He later used his engine to power a vehicle as shown.
It took a further sixty years before Otto and Langen in 1868 came up with an improved version of Rivaz’s original design depicted. Otto and Langer formed a motor company and manufactured these hydrogen engines for sale across Britten and France. It wasn’t until well after 1862 when M. Beau de Rochas first demonstrated the principle of compressing the fuel in the combustion chamber before ignition, that Otto perfected a design of his own and was initially granted a patent in 1876. However, this patent was later revoked (1886) in favour of the internal combustion engine invented by Beau de Roches . Despite this, Otto is still credited as the inventor of the four stroke engine.
Since the 1820’s there have been literally thousands of individuals and companies who have explored and developed hydrogen as a motive source of power. One of considerable note is Rudolf Erren who formed the Erren Motoren CmbH in Berlin in 1928 and the Erren Engineering Company in London in 1930. Over the years he converted many vehicles, boats and submarines to operate either partly or completely on hydrogen and patented the process. In England alone, he had over 600 vehicles running on hydrogen. Eventually, he lost everything in Germany due to World War II and the British government confiscated his assets in England and closed him down.
Had it not been for the development of petrol as a fuel: Had it not been for the suppression of hydrogen by vested interests: Had it not been for the huge tax revenue gained by governments from petrol, then hydrogen power would have been the natural successor to the steam powered age. Would not the Earth have been saved from the ravages of hydrocarbon pollution if the history of hydrogen had been different?